CICM
Contemporary Iraqi Culture And Media

Project Document - Slighly shortened
Version in English - 2005

Dr. Anwar Al-Ghassani Poet
Professor of journalism, computer-mediated communication and Internet
School of Mass Communication Sciences
University of Costa Rica
Postal Address: Anwar Al-Ghassani: Apdo. 1555, 2050 San Pedro M.O., Costa Rica
Tel.: home: (506) 283-9773, 234-0813 Fax: (506) 292-7136
email: alghassa@racsa.co.cr Website: http://al-ghassani.net

Contemporary Iraqi Culture and Media:
Opportunities, Problems, Risks

Research Project Document - Slightly Shortened Version

Note: This slightly shortened version of the original project document in Spanish is meant for persons who want to have an idea about what this research is about. Sections and paragraphs left out in their entirety are marked with (…). Notes are added where necessary. Adjustments were made wherever necessary to update the original document approved in November 2004 by the University of Costa Rica. Edited: April 29, 2005

Title of Research Project – short

Contemporary Iraqi Culture and Media


Title of Research Project – complete

Contemporary Iraqi Culture and Media: Opportunities, Problems, Risks

The role of conventional media, new information and communication media and technologies and Iraqi intellectuals in the development of contemporary Iraqi culture and media.


( Essay)


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Content

Project Synopsis / Area of Knowledge / Keywords
About the term “Development”
Some Aspects of Project Execution

Introduction

1. Problem
2. Scope of Research
3. Main Research Questions
4. Why This Research
5. Objectives And Aims
6. Phases
7. Resources
8. Methods And Procedures
9. Final Product
10. Research Usefulness
11. Progress Reports
12. Operation Plan
13. Bibliography
14. Annex

Researcher /Author

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Project Synopsis / Area of Knowledge / Keywords

Project Synopsis

The fall of the regime of Saddam Hussein on April 9, 2003 led to a new era of development for Iraqi culture and media marked by new opportunities as well as problems and risks.

This research aims at exploring the new situation. It will describe and analyze its factors and dynamics and attempt to formulate useful conclusions and recommendations about complex problems facing the present development of Iraqi culture and media. The research will also discuss probable future development perspectives.

Points of interest in this research are current phenomena such as the surprising quantitative growth of Iraqi cultural organizations and media (more than 200 media in 2004); the remarkable growth of culture and media of Iraqi nationalities and ethnic groups; free uncensored introduction of new communication and information media and technologies, including digital media, the Internet and satellite TV, into Iraqi culture and media system (50000 Internet users in 2003); and the special role and influence of Iraqi intellectuals in these processes.

The research will offer useful recommendations to policy and decision makers in the government, institutions of culture and higher education and the organizations of civil society, as well as ideas for future follow-up research and development projects.

In all its phases and levels the research will focus on and reflect the multinational, multiethnic, pluralistic and diverse character of Iraqi culture and media.

During the research period, the researcher will inform about obtained results and ongoing work in talks and lectures at universities in Costa Rica, Germany, and hopefully also in Iraq. The researcher will also write articles and offer interviews to Iraqi and other media.
At least two articles dealing with the subject-matter of this research will be written and presented for publication in academic journals. In addition, progress reports will be issued and presented to research authorities at the University of Costa Rica.

The research project will have its own information media, a website at the subdomain:
http://iraq.al-ghassani.net and an information and discussion list at:
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/iraq-cicm (Email address: iraq-cicm@yahoogroups.com )
This is an information vehicle and venue for discussion. List subscription is restricted to academics and persons with keen interest in the research.

The end product of this research is a long essay in Spanish that will be presented for publication as a book to the University of Costa Rica Publishing House.

This project document contains and organizes all the necessary information for planning and operational execution of the research.

The first version of the project document was written in October 2003, approved by the Research Commission of the School of mass Communication Sciences in April 2004 and by higher research authorities of the University of Costa Rica in November 2004.

The information about the Provisional Coalition Authority and the Iraqi Governing Council reflects available information at the time of writing the original project in 2003. This will be updated in the course of research to reflect the state of affairs after the election of the National Assembly and the formation of the new government in 2005.

This research has a duration period from January 2005 to December 2006.

Area of Knowledge

Culture – media – communication – computer-mediated communication – Iraqi culture and media – culture and media in the Middle East

Keywords /Descriptors

Culture, media, mass media, communication, international communication, media and culture in the Middle East, comparative transitional systems of media and culture, contemporary Iraqi media and culture, Iraqi intellectuals, Iraqi conventional media, Iraqi new communication and information media and technologies, Iraqi civil society, multinationl and multiethnic media and culture, media and cultural policies in Iraq.

About the term “Development”

The term “development” used in this document has the following meaning:

1. It is not the classical development term of the fifties of the past century.
2. All development implies change. Change should be brought about without damaging
human beings, their culture, life and surrounding nature.
3. Parallel to the introduction of new or improved forms and types of culture and media,
existing cultural forms and expressions, ways of life, inherited forms, types and
channels of communication and information must be preserved. They have the right to
exist and coexist.
4. All decisions related to change must be freely made by those persons who are to
become objects of change and should be based on research and scientific analysis. No
maxims and norms about what is good or bad, determined a priori, should substitute
this process of decision making.


Some Aspects of Project Execution

(…)

Introduction


Currently, Iraq is going through a period of important changes. The model being adopted or will be adopted for the construction of the new political, socio-economic and cultural order will determine the future of Iraq and peace and stability in Iraq, the Middle East and the world. However, it is not yet clear whether there is a theoretical development model, consciously selected, adopted and applied or that there is no such consciously adopted model, but rather a model that is being formed randomly and empirically through day by day practice of thinking, planning and constructing.

Undoubtedly, culture, conventional media, new information and communication media and technologies and Iraqi intellectuals are playing a decisive role within the current complex and complicated process. They are factors, actors and agents in the process of change. At the same time, they are themselves objects of change.

Never before in the history of modern Iraq did culture and media attract so much attention and were subjected to scrutiny as they are now. Never before their systematic and predetermined development have occupied the thinking of Iraqis as they do now.

This attention is partly due to the enormous importance of culture and media in social processes and national life. They can potentially become daily operative motors of development or destructive agents of Iraqi national identity.

This research project attempts to respond to the urgent need for a description of the current state of Iraqi culture and media, to find answers to present questions, to formulate ideas and suggestions about development problems and apply scientific research methods to the analysis and reflection about culture and media.

*

This document deals with the theoretical, methodological and practical aspects of the proposed research.
Some research activities are defined in general terms only. Later, in the course of the exploration and preparation phase, these activities will receive a more precise and detailed definition.

1. Problem

Since developments in Iraqi culture and media since April 9, 2003 are completely new phenomena that have not been yet researched, the need to be acquainted with these phenomena and to bring about some understanding of it is at the heart of what this research considers as its problem.

Thus, this research aims primarily at creating an overview (inventory, stock-taking, baseline) of the current state of Iraqi culture and media within the contexts of each other. This means that there will be an effort to understand culture within the context of media and in relation to the media, and on the other hand, to understand the media within the context of culture and in interaction with it.

Based upon such an overview, the research will go a step further and identify trends and tendencies in the current development of Iraqi culture and media. It will also devote special attention to the overall role of Iraqi intellectuals and the new communication and information media and technologies.

The research will draw conclusions on various levels: theory and methodology and the practice of media and cultural development in transitional periods.
Based on new and recent Iraqi experience in media and cultural reconstruction, the research will attempt to identify a number of categories, criteria and analysis units that could enrich the methodology of culture and media studies as well as of comparative studies in the general area of media and cultural system construction during transitional periods.

In addition to summarizing the findings in conclusions, the research will also point out the consequences of ongoing changes in Iraqi culture and media for media and cultural education and training.
Thereupon, the research will make recommendations to Iraqi policymakers, institutions of higher education and organizations of civil society.
Furthermore, the research will suggest a number of future follow-up research and development projects.

(…)


2. Scope of Research

The research will describe the present context of Iraqi culture and offer a short account of the modern Iraqi culture, particularly since April 9, 2003.

In addition, the research will an analyze documents, decisions and policy declarations issued by the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) and the now dissolved Governing Council (GC), as well as by the current government and National Assembly, ministries, universities and other entities related to culture, media and communication. It will also analyze the initiatives and activities of civil society and emerging professional organizations of intellectuals, writers, artists and journalists.

The research will outline the role played by conventional media, new information and communication media and technologies. It will identify the opportunities in this area and the problems and risks facing culture and media in the present stage marked by instability, social upheavals, openness towards capitalist development, privatization of state-owned enterprises and institutions in the absence of regulations that would protect the interests of the majority of the people of Iraq.
In other words, all problems and dangers that could erode Iraqi national identity and may even lead to wasting available opportunities for creating a sustainable economic order capable of providing essential services to the population, based on just distribution of wealth by a welfare state rooted in the concept of patriotic (national) capitalist economy with strong social-democratic features, an economy formed by state-owned, mixed and private sectors.

Iraqi society is multinational and multiethnic. The research will devote special attention to this fact and underline the role and contribution of the subcultures that form the Iraqi culture, i.e. the Iraqi meta-culture.

Within the framework of this research an attempt will be made to suggest and recommend measures that could help initiate a new era of internal cultural and medial development and external openness towards the World. Such recommendations will necessarily include measures to reduce or eliminate the dangers and negative influences that might accompany such processes.

3. Main Research Questions

Note: these questions underline aspects of interest related to research object. They trace the research area, inform, and help understand the research object. Only a selection, not the totality, of these questions will be dealt with in the research. A definitive selection will be made in the early stage of research.
Iraq Today – The Paradox Of Liberation And Occupation

1. How to define and understand the current situation in Iraq in terms of the paradox of liberation and occupation?
Iraqi Culture – Cultural Identity

1. What does the term “contemporary Iraqi culture” means?
2. The evolution process of Iraqi culture since Mesopotamia.
3. Iraqi culture as “meta-culture”, as the sum of the cultures of the peoples
and ethnic groups that form the nation of Iraq.
4. Thus, what does “Iraqi cultural identity” mean?

Model Of The Future Iraqi State And The Transition To Democracy

1. The problem of defining a model for the future Iraqi state and the transition to
,democracy.
2. Realistic perspectives of Iraq and Iraqi state surviving the current political
and economic upheavals.
3. Can democracy work in Iraq, and if so what type of democracy will it be?

Cultural Policy – Communication And Information Policy

1. Cultural and media policy of the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) and the now dissolved Governing Council (GC), of the current government and National Assembly, ministries, universities and other entities related to culture, media and communication. Initiatives and activities of civil society and emerging professional organizations of intellectuals, writers, artists and journalists.
Current Situation Of Iraqi Culture - Overview

1. The Baathization of Iraqi culture since 1968.
2. The Plundering of cultural institutions after April 9, 2003.
3. DeBaathization and purging of cultural institutions and media
4. Brief description of current situation in selected areas:

Convencional media
New communication and information media and technologies
Book publishing
Music production
Film and video production
Film and video imports
Production of TV programs
TV programs imports
Advertising industry
Entertainment industry
Fine arts
Theater

Note: the description of each of the above-mentioned will be structured according to the following categories:

- Policy
- Legislations
- Main ownership form
- Investments
- Products
- Forms of reception / distribution / consumption
- Feedback and its impact on the process of decision making
Iraqi Culture In Times Of Profound Changes

1. Does contemporary Iraqi culture have a developmental model?
2. What happened to the old cultural institutions the Iraqi state created and
maintained since the twenties of the past century?
3. Dangers facing Iraqi culture in its new era of development and the
measures necessary to neutralize those dangers.

Conventional Communication Media – Development since April 9, 2003

1. Quantitative growth of communication media.
2. Development perspectives and problems.
3. Impact of communication media on the development of Iraqi culture.
4. Education and training of journalists and communicators.

New Communication And Information Media And Technologies And The Development of Iraqi Culture

1. The evolution of new communication and information media and
technologies in Iraq since April 9, 2003 (Including: current state of
telecommunications, telephony, access to satellites, Internet services,
import of computers and other hardware, software and expertise).
2. Tendencies in the introduction of new communication and information
media and technologies and access to Internet – statistical analysis.
3. Development perspectives and problems of the new communication and
information media and technologies.
4. Problems of educating and training of journalists and communicators in
the theory and practice of new communication and information media and
technologies and their use in developing new types and forms of cultural
communication.
5. New communication and information media and technologies as a cultural
factor.
Role Of Iraqi Intellectuals In Cultural Processes (using the media as vehicles for message dissemination)

1. Traditional role of intellectuals.
2. Role of intellectuals in political, socioeconomic and cultural life of Iraq
since 2003.
3. Discovering, re-discovering and re-evaluation of Iraqi history (ancient,
Middle Ages, modern times).
4. Raising consciousness and awareness about humanistic features of Iraqi
culture (nonviolence, positive approach to life, diversity of traditional
spiritualism, moral and ethics, love for knowledge and for the arts, etc.)
as an urgent task for Iraqi intellectuals.
5. Raising consciousness and awareness about pathological excesses in Iraqi
culture (violence, death, torture, repression, submissiveness, arrogance,
ethnic bigotry, etc.) as an urgent task for Iraqi intellectuals.
Cultural, Informational And Media Policies of Political Parties

1. Current political parties in Iraq.
2. Are there common or somewhat similar approaches to culture and media
issues in the programs and official documents of political parties?
Civil Society And Emerging New And Alternative Cultural And Communicational Forms And Activities

1. What does “Iraqi civil society” mean?
2. How do civil society organizations participate in cultural processes?
3. What are the new, inventive and alternative forms civil society has
introduced into cultural and communicational processes in Iraq?

Multinational And Multiethnic Nature of Iraqi Culture As A Factor In Cultural Development

1. Iraqi culture as the sum of national and ethnic cultures.
2. Similarity and diversity in Iraqi culture.
3. Progress in the recognition and application of cultural rights of
nationalities and ethnic groups before and after April 9, 2003.
Cultural Interaction And Exchange

1. Definition of interaction and exchange within one culture and between
various cultures – relations of equality and domination.
2. Interaction and exchange between components of Iraqi culture and the
culture of the Middle East and the world.
3. Interaction between national sovereignty and cultural stability.
Safeguarding Iraqi cultural identity as a factor of political, economic and
social stability of Iraq.
4. Interdependence and interaction between stability in Iraq and stability in
the Middle East and stability and peace in the world.

Iraqi Culture And Media Development Perspectives

1. What development course Iraqi culture and media are expected to follow?
2. What are the problems expected to shape up as the main problems in the
course of development of Iraqi culture and media ? Are there any
solutions available to tackle these problems?
3. Some areas that could influence the development of Iraqi culture and media:

Public education system (expanding and improving the quality of the free of charge access to all its levels: primary, secondary and higher education).
System of higher education (reorientation of key areas: computer science, chemical industry, agriculture, tourism, environment, human rights, communication).

4. Creating a project for national cultural, communicational and informational infrastructure to guarantee access to culture and media.


4. Why This Research

Cultural and communicational development and stability, safeguarding national sovereignty and cultural identity of Iraq are decisive factors for the political, economic and social stability of Iraq, the Middle East and the world.
Therefore, researching Iraqi culture and media and recommending solutions and ideas for bringing about and consolidating their development should contribute to making Iraq a stable country and finding the best direction for the future development of Iraq.


5. Objectives And Aims


Main Objective

To make an introductory study about contemporary Iraqi culture and media and available development opportunities within the process of current and future changes in Iraq.
Furthermore, to suggest solutions to the main problems of this process and protection measures to confront threatening dangers.
Within this context, it is important to identify and analyse the role and contribution of conventional communication media, the new communication and information media and technologies as well as the role of Iraqi intellectuals.
Secondary Objectives

(…)

Note: these include details of the main objective and actions to attain secondary objectives. They have been excluded here since they are referred to in slightly different terms under: 8. Methods and Procedures.

6. Phases

Duration

- January 2005 to December 2006
- Duration of research stay in Germany: August, September, October 2005 (tentative date
depending on approvals).
- Duration of field research in Iraq: two weeks in September 2005 (tentative date
depending on security conditions in Iraq and approvals).

This research has three phases:

First Phase:

Preparation Phase – January to June 2005

Second Phase:

Realization Stage I (in Germany and Iraq or in Costa Rica, depending on approvals) – August – October 2005
Realization Stage II (in Costa Rica) – November 2005 – December 2006
(Note: depending on approvals the Germany and Iraq stay may
be transferred to the same period in 2006)

Third Phase:

Writing Stage: writing and presentation of the essay (final product)
October - diciembre 2006

7. Resources

Costs and expenses of research are covered by the University of Costa Rica.

Costs and expenses of the intended research stay in Germany (at the Lehrstuhl Kommunikationswissenschaft/ Mediensysteme/ kommunikationskulturen at Universität Erfurt) are covered by cooperation agreement between the University of Costa Rica and the Deutscher Akademischer Austauschsdienst (DAAD).

Note: The Germany stay needs still to be approved. The University of Costa Rica has approved the stay in principle when the research project was approved. The researcher will soon seek the approval by DAAD.
Furthermore, the researcher will seek the logistic support of the Iraqi Ministry of Culture in case the stay in Iraq materializes.

(…)

8. Methods And Procedures

8.1. Bibliographical exploration in Costa Rica, Germany and Iraq.
8.2. Exploration and searches in the Web and Internet.
8.3. Interviews and conversations with researchers at universities in Costa
Rica, Germany and Iraq; also with experts, Iraqi intellectuals, civil society activists
and government officials in Iraq.
8.4. Obtaining general and specific documents, decrees, legislations and
statistical data about Iraqi culture and media.
8.5. Processing of obtained contents: selection, study, analysis, commenting
and presentation.
8.6. Writing and delivering of three lectures in Costa Rica, Germany and Iraq.
Transcription and analysis of comments and discussion of lectures for use in the
research.
8.7. Publication of news, reports and documents related to the research in the research´s
own information media:
Website: http://iraq.al-ghassani.net
Information and discussion list: iraq-cicm@yahoogroups.com
And if possible, also in the media in Costa Rica, Germany and Iraq.
8.8. Editing the main body of research document (semifinal and final versions).
8.9. Writing research conclusions and results organized in sections and numbered
consecutively. The sections will roughly correspond to the chapters of the final
version of the research essay (see: 9.2. Tentative Outline)
8.10. Writing recommendations about how and where to apply and use research
conclusions and results.

Application areas of recommendations:

8.10.1. In theory: formulation of statements, theorems, hypotheses about Iraqi culture and
media organized as problems, research questions, theoretical constructions and
preliminary theories.
8.10.2. In methodology: suggestions for the construction of more effective methods for
future research.
8.10.3. Recommendations for policy formulation and application in areas of culture and
media.
8.10.4. Suggestions for future research of Iraqi culture and media.
8.10.5. Suggestions about teaching, training, learning and research of culture,
communication and media sciences at Iraqi universities.
8.10.6. Suggestions about the creation of a variety of urgent projects. Examples:

- Creation of the Confederation of Iraqi Intellectuals.
- Creation of the Foundation of Iraqi Culture.
- Creation of the Iraqi Media Observatory (Center for Media Studies and Ombudsman of
Communication Consumers).
- Creation of the Foundation of Iraqi Intellectuals, Journalists and Artists Sans Frontières.
- Creation of the Iraqi Biographical Directory.
- Renovation of study plans and programs of culture, media and communication at Iraqi
universities.
- Creation of study plans and program for new communication and information media
and technologies, including online education programs at Iraqi universities.

8.11. Editing the list of selected bibliography and annexes.
8.12. Exploring the feasibility of publishing and translating the final product of this
research (Spanish: University of Costa Rica Publishing House; Arabic: Ministry of
Culture, Iraq).

9. Final Product

9.1. Description Of Final Product

(...)

Note: this section includes detailed description of the final product (Book manuscript /Essay in Spanish, scientific articles, reference to post-research and follow-up project: Enabling Access To Internet In The Whole Territory of Iraq).

9.2. Tentative Outline
Note: this short version of the outline of the final product (the essay) includes chapters only (no sections and subsections). This outline is subject to change at any given time during the research process.

Introduction

A. Some Preliminary Definitions: Development, Iraqi Culture, Iraqi Media
B. Iraq Today – The Paradox Of Liberation And Occupation
C. Political And Economic Upheavals – The New Iraqi State And
Transition To Democracy – The Model Crisis
D. Cultural, Communicational And Informational Policies Of Iraqi Political
Parties
E. Cultural, Communicational And Informational Policies Of Iraqi
Governments: Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA), Governing
Council (GC), Current Government
F. Iraqi Culture And Media In Times Of Profound Changes
G. Role Of Intellectuals And Media In The Process Of Cultural Renovation
H. Iraqi Civil Society And The Emerging Cultural And Communicational
Forms And Practices
I. Multinational And multiethnic Character Of Iraqi Culture As
Constructive Factor
J. Conventional Media – Developments Since April 9, 2003 – Role in Culture
K. New Communication And Information Media And Technologies –
Developments Since April 9, 2003 – Role in Culture
L. Future Perspectives
M. Conclusions
N. Recommendations

Bibliography
Annex
Researcher/ Author

10. Research Usefulness

Note: this section discusses the usefulness of this research for theory and practice in areas of culture and media and for policy decision making process.
It includes information about lectures the researcher will deliver at the University of Costa Rica, Lehrstuhl Kommunikationswissenschaft/ Mediensysteme/ kommunikationskulturen at the Universität Erfurt, and the University of Baghdad) as well as information about articles he plans to write and interviews he would offer to Iraqi media.
Furthermore, the section discusses the opportunities for establishing cooperation contacts based on agreements between the University of Costa Rica, Universität Erfurt and Iraqi universities. The researcher intends to present suggestions to this effect to the respective universities.
Finally, the section includes information about the publication of research results as a book.

11. Progress Reports

The following reports will be presented to the authorities of the University of Costa Rica (Vicerrectoría de Investigación and Escuela de Ciencias de la Comunicación Colectiva):

Progress report: December 15, 2005
Final report: December 30, 2006

12. Operation Plan

12.1. Overview

The project document is the general planning and organization instrument of the research. The execution of tasks on pre-established dates and the use of resources are controlled by the timetable. The list of contacts contains information necessary for organizing and realizing diverse activities.

12.2. Timetable

(…)

Note: this is a three page timetable that details major research activities. Currently the timetable is being updated due to the shift in research period from the original period of 2004-2005 to the approved period of 2005-2006.

12.3. Contacts

Note: preliminary list of contacts. During the research process, the list will be significantly expanded.

Dr. Salima Salih
Novelist and digital graphics artist (Doctorate thesis about Iraqi culture)
Weissenseer Weg 2 – 5/7
10367 Berlin
Germany
Tel.: 00 49 30 972 0070
Email: salimasalih@hotmail.com

Dr. Fadhil Al-Azzawi
Poet, novelist and journalist (Doctorate thesis about Iraqi culture)
Weissenseer Weg 2 – 5/7
10367 Berlin
Germany
Tel.: 00 49 30 972 0070
Email: Al-Azzawi.Fadhil@t-online.de

Deutsche Akademische Austauschsdient (DAAD), Central America
(CONARE – San José, Costa Rica)
Tel.: 00 506 290 3325

Kardo Kamo
Writer and Photographer
Berlin, Germany

Dr. Salih Khadim
Expert in Theater
Berlin, Germany
Email: mailtosh@sahu.de

Dr. Feriad Fadhil Omar
Poet in Kurdish and Arabic
Professor, Freie Universität Berlin
Director
Institut für Kurdische Studien
Tel./fax: 00 49 30 821 9943
Tel.: 00 49 30 821 0635 (home)

Professor Dr. Roberto Marín Guzmán
Expert on Arabic culture and Middle East studies
Escuela de Estudios Generales
Universidad de Costa Rica
Tel.: 227 1163 (home)
Email: romagu_02@yahoo.com

Dr. Kadhim Habib
Expert on Iraqi economy
Professor and politician
Berlin, Germany
Email: KHabib@t-online.de

Dr. Sarwar Ibrahim
Expert on Kurdish and Arabic literature
Berlin, Germany
Email: dr.sarwar@web.de

Alexander Sternberg
Director
Office of the Representation of the Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP)
Berlin, Germany
Email: ax.sternberg@gmx.net

Gema Muñoz
Expert on Middle East studies
Autor of the book: Iraq: el fracaso de Occidente (Iraq: The Failure of The West)
Madrid, Spain

Dr. Manuel M. Murillo
Director
Office of International Affairs and External Cooperation
University of Costa Rica
Tel.: 506 207 5080 / 207 4729, fax: 506 225 5822
Email: oaiucr@cariari.ucr.ac.cr

University of Baghdad – Bagdad – Aj-Jadria, Iraq
(Founded: 1957)
Dr. Sami A. Al-Mudhaffar
Dean

University of Salahuddin – Arbil, Iraq
(Founded: 1981)
Tel.: 00 964 665 223 0411 / 223 0335
Email: saladhaw@web-sat.com

Iraqi ministries and ministers of interest for the research:

Note: status 2004

Ministry of Communication: Dr. Haydar al-Abadi
Ministry of Culture: Mufid Muhammad Juwad al-Jaza'iri
Ministry of Education: Dr. Ala'din Abdul Sahib Alwan
Ministry of Environment: Abdel Rahman Sadiq Karim
Ministry of Expatriates & Immigrants: Muhammad Jasim Khdeir
Ministry of Higher Education: Ziad Abdel Razzaq Muhammad Aswad
Ministry of Human Rights: Abdel Basit Turki
Ministry of Science & Technology: Rashad Omar Mindan


13. Bibliography
A. Cited or Commented bibliography
B. Sources in the Web

C. Additional And Contextual Bibliography

Provisional Bibliographical Sample
(for the purpose of presenting this project. This list will be significantly expanded)

Al-Hassani, Sayyed Abdulrazzak (1968): History of Iraqi Governments – Vol. 7. Saida: Al-Irfan Press. (Arabic)

Asimov, Isaac (1995): El Cercano Oriente. Madrid: Alianza.

Baker, Kevin (2003): We’re in The Army Now – The G.O.P.’s Plan to Militarize Our Culture. In: Harper’s Magazine (New York), October 2003, 35-46.

Benazzi, Natale; D’ Amico, Matteo (2000): El libro negro de la inquisición. Barcelona: Robinbook-Hermética.

Berman, Paul (2003): El filósofo del terror islámico. En: Letras Libres (México, D.F.), año v, número 55, julio del 2003, 28-36.

Bettetini, Gianfranco; Colombo, Fausto (1995): Las nuevas tecnologías de la comunicación. Barcelona: Paidós.

Brecht, Bertolt (1984): El arte y la política. Managua: Nueva Nicaragua.

Brentjes, Burchard (1981): Unter Halbmond und Stern – Der Islam: Religion, Weltanschauung oder Lebensweise? Berlin: Union Verlag.

Broszinsky-Schwabe, Edith (1979): Kulturrevolution in Afrika. Berlin: VEB Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften.

Castro Lobo, Manuel (1999): El escritor hispanoamericano y la búsqueda de su identidad cultural. En: Revista Estudios (San José), número 14-15, 1997-1998, 117- 128.

Caudwell, Christopher (1970): Una cultura moribunda: la cultura burguesa. México: Grijalbo.

Childe, Gordon (1964): What Happened in History. London: Penguin.

Chomsky, Noam (1971): La responsabilidad de los intelectuales. Barcelona: Ariel.

Coughlin, Con (2003): La vida secreta de Saddam Hussein. Barcelona: Planeta

Darwish, Mahmoud Fahmi; Jawad, Mustafa; Susa, Ahmad (1960): Directory of the Republic of Iraq for 1960. Baghdad: Ministry of Guidance. (Arabic)

Eisele, Petra (1989): Babilonia – Historia de la mítica ciudad. Madrid: EDAF.

Frescaroli, Antonio (1972): Historia de la tortura a través de los siglos. Barcelona: De Vecchi S.A.

Friedman, Thomas L. (2000): The Lexus And The Olive Tree – Understanding Globalization. New York: Anchor.

Friedman, Thomas L. (2005): The World Is Flat – A Brief History Of The Twenty-First Century. New York: Farrar, Straus And Giroux.

Fromm, Erich (1973): The Anatomy of Human Destructiveness. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Genovés, Santiago (1994): Violence Revisited. Mexico: Fondo de Cultura Económica.

Gockel, Wolfgang (2001): Iraq – Sumerische Tempel, Babylons Paläste und heilige Stätten des Islam im Zweistromland. Köln: DuMont Buchverlag.

Hudson, Gabe (2003): Estimado Sr. Bush. Barcelona: Emecé.

---------- (1994): Iraq And The Rule of Law. Geneva: International Commission of Jurists.

Krauze, Enrique (2003): Ascenso y caída del imperio estadounidense. Conversación con Paul Kennedy. En: Letras Libres (México, D.F.), año v, número 55, julio del 2003, 12-18.

Longrigg, Stephen H. (1941): Four Centuries of Modern Iraq. Baghdad: sin nombre del editorial. (Arabic).

Lyons, Gene (2003): The Media is The Message – Notes on Our Decadent Press (an essay discussing the book: What Liberal media? The Truth About Bias And The News, by Eric Alterman. Gasic Books, 2003. 322 pages). In: Harper’s Magazine (New York), October 2003, 77-82.

Marín Guzmán, Roberto (2003): Introducción al estudio del Medio Oriente Islámico: trayectoria histórica, continuidad y cambio. San José: Editorial de la Universidad de Costa Rica.

Naief, Yehya (2003): El mito de las armas de destrucción masiva. En: Letras Libres (México, D.F.), año v, número 55, julio del 2003, 88-89.

Packard, Vance (1970): The Hidden Persuaders. London: Pelican.

---------- (1970): Present Day Iraqi Culture. Baghdad: Ministry of Culture and Information.

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14. Annex

Note: Status: early 2004. This information will be updated in the course of research.

1. Iraqi Governing Council

The Governing Council was appointed by Coalition Provisional Authority Administrator L. Paul Bremer on July 13, 2003. The United Nations Security Council described the Council as “broadly representative” and praised its formation as “an important step towards the formation by the people of Iraq of an internationally recognized, representative government…” in Resolution 1500.

All Iraqi ministers were named by and serve at the pleasure of the Governing Council. While the Council has a broad range of duties, its most important task is to organize a constitutional convention to write a new, permanent Iraqi constitution. The UN Security Council has charged the Governing Council with publishing a time table for transition to sovereignty no later than December 15, 2003.

The Governing Council will continue in office until the Coalition returns legal sovereignty to a government elected under the new constitution.

Dr. Ebrahim Jafari Al Eshaiker
Main Spokesman of the Islamic Da’wah Party. Born in Karbala, educated in Mosul University as a medical doctor.

Dr. Ahmad Chalabi
Head of the Iraqi National Congress (INC), mathematics professor and a businessman. Founder of the INC.

Ahmad Shya’a al-Barak
General Coordinator for the Human Rights Association of Babel; Graduate of the Law Faculty, Babel University. Graduate of the College Management and Economy, Baghdad University. One of the tribal leaders of Al Bu Sultan tribe in Babel.


Dr. Ayad Allawi
Secretary General of the Iraqi National Accord. PhD in medicine. Started to oppose the dictatorial regime in the early 1970s and was in the forefront of efforts to organize opposition both within Iraq and abroad.

Dr. Jalal Talabani
Jalal Talabani is Secretary General of the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan and a leading figure of the Iraqi democratic movement during the last 50 years.

Hamid Majeed Mousa
Secretary of the Iraqi Communist Party since 1993. Born in Babil province. An economist and petroleum researcher. Left Iraq in 1978 and returned in 1983to continue his political activities against the dictatorial regime

Judge Dara Nor al Din
A Judge who as a member of the Court of Appeals, held one of Saddam’s edicts (confiscating land without proper compensation) unconstitutional. Was sentenced to 2 years in jail. Served 8 months at Abu Ghraib before being released in the general amnesty last October.

Dr. Raja Habib Khuzai
Head of maternity hospital in Diwanyia. Studied and lived in the United Kingdom from the late 1960s until 1977 when she returned to Iraq.

Samir Shakir Mahmood Sumaidy
From the Al-Sumaidy clan with documented lineage from the Prophet Mohammed through Mousa Al-Khadhum. Ancestral lands located near Haditha in the Al-Anbar region. Writer, designer and entrepreneur. A prominent figure in the opposition to the Saddam regime.

Salahaddin Muhammad Bahaddin
Elected as Secretary General of the Kurdistan Islamic Union in the first conference of the party in 1994, was reelected in the second and third conferences and still holds the post. Born in Halabja. Has written several books in Kurdish and Arabic.

Songul Chapouk
From Kirkuk and from the Iraqi Turkoman Community. A trained Engineer and teacher. She heads the Iraqi Women’s Organisation (based in Kirkuk) which aims to bring together all the female communities of Iraq.

Abdul Zahra Othman Mohammed (Izzedin Salim)
Head of the Islamic Da’wah Movement (Harakat al Dawa al Islamiya) in Basra. Writer, thinker and political activist. Editor of numerous newspapers and magazines.

Abdul Aziz al-Hakim
Religious and political leader and the current leader of the Supreme Council for Islamic Revolution in Iraq. He is the brother of Muhammad Baqr al-Hakim. They both returned to Iraq after 20 years of exile and are both the sons of the late Ayatollah Sayyid Mohsin al-Hakim.

Abdul Karim Al Muhammadawi
Head of Iraqi Party of God in Al Amara. Member and Rotating Chairman of Interim Supervisory Council in Maysan Province. Dubbed “Prince of the Marshes” for leading the resistance movement against Saddam in the Southern Marshes for 17 years, for which he spent 6 years in prison.

Dr. Adnan Pachachi
President of the Iraqi Independent Grouping. Former Foreign Minister and Permanent Representative to the United Nations.

Ghazi Ajil Alyawar
Born in Mosul. A civil engineer. Recently Vice President of Hicap Technology Co. Lyd., Riyadh.

Dr. Mohsen Abdul Hameed
Secretary General of the Iraqi Islamic Party (IIP). Born in the city of Kirkuk. Author of more the 30 books in the field of interpretation of the Holy Quran. Detained in 1996 on the charge of reorganising the IIP. Professor in the College of Education in Baghdad University.

Dr. Seyyid Muhammed Bahr ul-Uloom
Highly-respected Shi’a clergyman. Returned from London where he headed the Ahl al-Bayt charitable center. Elected as the Shi’a member of a leadership triumverate by the Iraqi opposition after the Gulf Conflict.

Mahmoud Othman
Independent politician and long-term leader of the Kurdish National Struggle.
Masood Barzani
President of the Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP). He rose to this position from peshmerga. He was elected President in 1979 and reelected in 1999.

Mowaffak al-Rubaie
Born in al-Shatra. Member of British Royal Doctors’ College. Consultant in internal medicine and neurology. Author of the Declaration of the Shia of Iraq. Activist in human rights. Student of the martyr Imam Baaker al-Sadr, who was murdered by Saddam.

Naseir al-Chadirchi
Leader of the National Democratic Party. Resident of Baghdad. Lawyers, businessman and farm owner.

Judge Wael Abdulatif
Born in Basra and practiced civil and criminal law before being disbarred and imprisoned by Saddam. Had been head judge at Nasiriya and now deputy head judge in Basra. Elected Governor of Basra on 4 July 2003 by the interim local council with the support of all the leading political and religious parties.

Yonnadam Kanna, Assyrian Democratic Movement (ADM)
Secretary General of the Assyrian Democratic Movement. Former Minister of Public Works and Housing and Former Minister of Industry and Energy in Iraqi Kurdistan. Engineer since 1975. Activist against the dictatorial regime since 1979.

Dr. Akila Al Hashimi, Career Diplomat Assassinated: Ambushed by terrorists on September 20 died of her wounds on September 25.
Diplomat. Led Iraqi delegation to New York donors’ conference. PhD in Modern Literature and Bachelors in Law. Working with UN programmes in Iraq since 1991 in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

Source: website of the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA): http://www.cpa-iraq.org/
2. Iraqi Ministries and Ministers
Ministry of Agriculture: Abdul Amir al-Abood
Ministry of Communication: Dr. Haydar al-Abadi
Ministry of Construction & Housing: Bayan Baqir Solagh (Bayan Jabur)
Ministry of Culture: Mufid Muhammad Juwad al-Jaza'iri
Ministry of Education: Dr. Ala'din Abdul Sahib Alwan
Ministry of Electricity: Dr. Aiham Alsammarae
Ministry of Environment: Abdel Rahman Sadiq Karim
Ministry of Expatriates & Immigrants: Muhammad Jasim Khdeir
Ministry of Finance: Kamel al-Keilani
Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Mr. Hoshiyar Mahmud Muhammad al-Zibari
Ministry of Health: Dr. Khidr Abbas
Ministry of Higher Education: Ziad Abdel Razzaq Muhammad Aswad
Ministry of Human Rights: Abdel Basit Turki
Ministry of Industry & Minerals: Eng. Muhammad Tawfiq Rahim
Ministry of Interior: Nouri Badran
Ministry of Irrigation: Dr. Latif Rashid
Ministry of Justice: Hashim Abdel Rahman al-Shibli
Ministry of Labor & Social Affairs: Sami Azara al-Ma’jun
Ministry of Oil: Dr. Ibrahim Bahr al-Uloum
Ministry of Planning: Dr. Mehdi al-Hafidh
Ministry of Public Works: Mrs. Nasreen Mustafa Sadiq Barwari
Ministry of Science & Technology: Rashad Omar Mindan
Ministry of Trade: Dr. Ali Allawi
Ministry of Transport: Bahnam Ziya Boulous
Ministry of Youth & Sports: Ali Fa’iq al-Ghabban
Source: website of the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA): http://www.cpa-iraq.org/

3. Iraqi Universities
Iraqi Universities
No. University City Governorate
1 Al-Anbar
Ramadi Anbar
2 Al-Kufa
Kufa Al-Najaf
3 Al-Nahrain
Baghdad Baghdad
4 Al-Qadisia
Al-Diwanyah Qadisia
5 Al-Ta`ameem
Kirkuk Al-Ta`ameem
6 Babil
Hilla Babil
7 Baghdad
Baghdad Baghdad
8 Basrah
Basrah Basrah
9 Diyala
Ba qubah Diala
10 Iraqi Comm. Of Medical Specialization Baghdad Baghdad
11 Iraqi Comm. Of Informatics & Computers Baghdad Baghdad
12 Islamic
Baghdad Baghdad
13 Karbala
Karbala Karbala
14 Mosul
Mosul Nineva
15 Mustansyria
Baghdad Baghdad
16 Technology
Baghdad Baghdad
17 Thi-Qar
Nasiriyah Thi-Qar
18 Tikrit
Tikrit Salah Ad din
19 Wassit
Kut Wassit
Iraqi Universities in the North
20 Dohok
Dohok Dohok
21 Salahiddin
Erbil Erbil
22 Sulaymaniyah
Sulaymaniyah Sulaymaniyah


Source: website of the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA): http://www.cpa-iraq.org/



Researcher /Author

Professor Dr. Anwar Al-Ghassani
Professor of journalism, computer-mediated communication and Internet

Academic Degree and Title

Professor, Dr. rer. pol. (Universität Leipzig, Germany)
Areas of Specialization: Journalism, Communication and Media, Computer-Mediated Communication, Internet.

Doctorate Promotion University: Universität Leipzig, Germany

Languages

Full command: Arabic, English, German, Spanish.
Beginner level: Italian
Spoken only: Kurdish, Turkomenish.
Artificial: HTML, JavaScript, CSS and others.

Identity Card and Passport Number:
Costa Rican passport. Number: 8-076-816, issued: March 27, 2001, valid until: March 27, 2006
Nationality: Costa Rican
Birth Date, Place and Country: February 12, 1937, Qalat Salih, Iraq
Institution

Escuela de Ciencias de la Comunicación Colectiva (ECCC), Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR), (School of Mass Communication Sciences, University of Costa Rica) San José, Costa Rica.

Employment/Position: Full Professor (chair)


----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Dr. Anwar Al-Ghassani
Iraqi Poet
Professor of Journalism, Computer-mediated Communication & Internet
School of Mass Communication Sciences
University of Costa Rica

Postal Address:

Apdo 823,
2050 San Pedro Mts Oca,
Costa Rica

Phone: 506 234 0813, 506 283 9773 (home)
Mobile: 506 375 5011
Fax: 506 292 7136 (home)
alghassa@racsa.co.cr

Websites of Al-Ghassani Network:

http://al-ghassani.net (official personal portal)
http://iraq.al-ghassani.net (Website of research project on Iraqi culture and media)
http://literature-arts.al-ghassani.net (Iraqi, Arab and international poets, writers, and artists)
http://internet-center.al-ghassani.net (Internet Center Munira Sayyed Tahir)